What is your console's model?
Originally Posted by Spaz
If your console worked properly before you moved, it does seem like it's malfunction is caused by a lack of power.
When you mentioned that your console "shuts off" immediately after reading a disc, does it return to it's standby state or does it lose power?
If you are using a slimline, the console draws about 1.5A of power (But you should be able to plug it directly into your local mains anyway, since the slimline's adaptor can run on 100-240V. Best to double-check anyway).
The fat PS2 seems to draw a bit less power: About 0.58A, depending on it's model.
What are the maximum ratings of your voltage step-down transformer?
Are any other devices plugged into it? Try running the console with few/no extra devices connected to the transformer.
Of course, it could be also caused by a hardware problem with the console itself.
Can you hear the disc spinning before the console shuts down?
My SCPH-10000 console is plugged into my local mains (230V) through a 58W 230V to 100V step-down transformer (Which was meant for imported PS2 consoles).
Unmodified SCPH-77006 with SM 3.6
SCPH-39006 with M-chip modchip, SCPH-10281 NA and refurb Seagate 80GB HDD
SCPH-10000 v1.00 with SCPH-10190 PCMCIA NA and SCPH-20400 HDD unit